Computer Architecture - Question and answer - 2

6. Differences between RAM and ROM
Fast to read
Usually used in small quantities
Used to store boot instructions or firmware
Relatively expensive per megabyte stored compared to RAM
Fast to read and write
Used as system memory to store data (including program code)  that the CPU needs to process imminently
Relatively cheap per megabyte stored compared to ROM.

7. What is virtual memory In computer?
Virtual memory is a feature of an operating system that enables a computer to be able to compensate shortages of physical memory by transferring pages of data from random access memory to disk storage. This process is done temporarily and is designed to work as a combination of RAM and space on the hard disk.

8. What is a flip-flop ?
A flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information – a bistable multivibrator. The circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic storage element in sequential logic. Flip-flops and latches are fundamental building blocks of digital electronics systems used in computers, communications, and many other types of systems.

9. Explain the three categories of computer architecture?
Computer architecture consists of three main categories. System design – This includes all the hardware parts, such as CPU, data processors, multiprocessors, memory controllers and direct memory access. This part is the actual computer system.

10. What are the different types of fields that are part of instruction?
A basic computer has three instruction code formats which are:
Memory - reference instruction.
Register - reference instruction.
Input-Output instruction.